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Full text of "Rollinson's modern school for the violin"

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Roi/i/i^so^Cs 

MODI/RH 



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FOR THE 






VIOLIN 



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. H. ROLLINSON 



Boston: 

Oliver Ditscm Company 






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Rollinson\s 

Modern School 

for the 

Viol in 

BY 

T.H.Rollinson 



BOSTON 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY 

NEW YORK CHICAGO PHILADELPHIA 

CH DITSONaCO. LYON &HEALY JEDITSONftCO. 

cdpywcht mcmvii waives orsoN CDWANf 

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AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

It is a well established fact that a complete course of study 
for the violin cannot be laid out in one book. However sys- 
tematic and progressive a work may be, the wise student will, 
nt certain stages, seek special studies for no course of practice 
can be laid out which will fit all alike. In this method I have 
soug-ht to establish a course which will build a thorough foun- 
dation at each Stage of progress and the student is advised 
to seek special studies whenever further perfection in any par- 
ticular form of exercise is desired. Any such which are re- 
ferred to in this book may be depended upon as perfect in their 
special lines. 

T. //. BOLLINSON 
Boston Jan V* 1907 



«*8B» 86-V 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Rudiments of Music 7 

The Violin 14 

Diagram of the Fingerboard 15 

How To Hold The Violin, etc 16 

Elementary Exercises 17 

The Slur 23 

Expression 25 

Scale of C Major and A Minor 26 

Scale of G Major arid E Minor 2S 

Scale of D Major and B Minor 30 

Scale of F Major and D Minor 32 

Scale of Bl> Major and G Minor . • :5i 

Syncopation 36 

The Positions 35) 

Dotted Notes 11 

Different Forms of Bowing' 45 

Studies Combining- the Different Bowings 49 

Embellishments 52 

Eig-ht Recreative Duets 56 

Double Stops 60 

The Major Scales 62 

The Minor Scales 63 

Scale Exerciser 64 

Chromatic Scale . 69 

Major and Minor Chords 71 

Diminished Sevenths 73 

Triplets 71 

The Pizzicato 76 

Harmonica 77 

The Trill .79 

Five Recreations for Two Violins si 

Ktudes and Technical Studies . B8 

Orchestra Studies ... 9H 






RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC. 



A Note is a character, which by its formation indicates the duration of a musical .sound, and by its situa- 
tion upon the staff, its proper pitch. 

The Whole Note (o) is the longest note now in use. 

The Half Note f o) has a stem added and has one half the value of a whole note. 

The Quarter Note (0 ) has one half the value of a half note. 

The Eighth Note ' • ) is the quarter note with a hook added and has one half its value. 

The Sixteenth Note \#v has firo hooks, and has one half the value of an eighth note. 

(to 

The Thirty-second Note l • ' ' has three hooks, and has one half the value of a sixteenth note. 

( h 

The Sixty-fourth Note # ■ ' h&B/bur hooks, and has one half the value of a thirty-second note. 
The stems may turn either up or down, and the hooks may turn to tin- right or left or be joined together 

< 1 1 

thus:- • Y I I I 0000 

The unit of value in time is called a "beat" or "count", the value of the unit being determined by the tem- 
po in which it occurs; tints a note might have the same number of beats or counts in a lively tempoyct not be 
sustained one half as long as one in a slow tempo, 

The relative value of the notes always remains the same. 

A Whole Note equals two Half Notes, or four Quarter Notes, or eight Eighth Notes, or sixteen Sixteenth 
Notes, or thirty-two Thirty-second Notes, or sixty-four Sixty-fourth Note-. 

The value of the Whole Note is usually four founts." 

The Pitch of a note is determined by its position upon the staff. 

A Staff consists of Five Lines ami four spaces 

4^ space zzj 



Staff with notes in spaces and on lines. 



r>th line 
I: :: 



When these five lines and four spaces are insufficient the staff is enlarged by the addition of more lines 
called "Added Lines," 



Added Lint's and Spaces Above and Below the Staff. 



1 • 1, B* 
Lines above .«. 



gd 



:<•' 



4th 



51 ti 



•4*- (Spaces above. . 

= ■- t 



84 



4th 



5$ 



Lines below i>' 



84 



84 



1'b 



*> Spaces below 
5tJ> 



TV 

84 



Ti 



These several lines and Bpaces an called "Degrees.* 1 

Another character i s still nec-ssary to fully determine the pitch of a note. 

This character is called a "Clef." and is placed at the beginning of a staff. 

The line upon which a clef is placed takes the Dame of the clef, and the remaining degrees Of the staff 

receive their names in alphabetical order. 



The "(i" clef, or "Treble" clef, is placed on the second line of the staff, thus: fr 



All musical sounds are capable of being noted, classified, and n , ted by the first seven letters of the 

alphabet, A. B, C, I). K. K. (r, - differently placed and arranged. 

The seeond line in the treble >/>/ \t Gh this is culled the cjef note. j 
The next degree above would be A. and the next below, K 




<. . I 



This cine being given, it is a v. 1 y simple matter to determine th>- names of any given deg 
The following gives the names ,,f the different deg] eefcin the treble, or G elef. 



Lines 



Spaces 



£ 



B C 



E G 



DF FACE EFGA 



C D E F 



JeJe 



^ 



D B G E C A F 



•' iii^u 1 



GBDFACACEGB 
The F Clef or Bass Clef, is placed upon the fourth line: s 



3 



The following are the degrees in the F, or Bass Clef: 
F 



i 



m=i 



s 



B D 



B C b 



Clef note A C E G G B 



FA G A 



EFGA 



S 






m^ 



F D B G E C A 



ili^U 



BDFAC CEGBD 

Each note has a corresponding "Rest" which is used to indicate silence, equal in length to its own particular note. 



P 



P 



P 



Whole Rest. Half Rest. Quarter Rest. Eighth Rest. Sixteenth Rest. Thirty-second Rest. Sixty-fourth Rest. 



i 



m 



* 



A Dot placed after a note increases its value one-half. Rests may be affected in a like manner 
Dotted Notes. 



Comparative Value. 



DOC 



P 



r '?' 



HE 



wm 



P 'P F 'P P <| 



Dotted Rests. 



Comparative Value. 



±± 



*E 



^^ 



m 



7 7 rr^r ^^ 



A Slur placed over two different not]es,thus: f [ J indicates that they are to be played as smoothly as possible. 



When the slur is placed over two 
notes occupying the same degree, thus: 



it is called a "Tie" and indicates that the two are to be per- 
formed as one. The tie is useful in connecting two notes 



when one is the last of one measure and the other the first of another, thus: 



P=P 



Bars are perpendicular lines drawn across the staff to divide it into equal portions of durations. These 

divisions are called "Measures." 

Bar. Bar. Bar. 



Measure. Measure. 

The division which is here called a "Measure" is also sometimes termed a "Bar." 
The Double Bar indicates the end of a strain or composition. 



Dots placed on the left of a double bar denote that a part is to be repeated, usually from dots placed on the 
right of a bar, thus: 

» — - — - ?i * 



jS=m: 



feg 



rj 00 



- 






In the above example all but the first two notes are repeated. 

Rests are not connected by ties, nor are they confined to any particular position upon the staff. 

TIME. 

The Time Mark, placed at the commencement of every composition, determines what shall be the contents 
of each measure. Of these there are several in use. 

4--H or if indicates Common Time, the value of a Whole Note in each measure. 
Figures indicate fractional parts of a measure. 

TorC indicates four quarter notes, or their equivalent, counting one to each quarter note and four in a measure. 
-gorijl indicates the equivalent of two half notes, counting one to each half note and two in a measure. 

-/-—Three quarter notes, counting one to each quarter note and three in a measure. 

2 

t-Two quarter notes, counting one to each quarter note and two in a measure. 

•j 

o —Three eighth notes, counting one to each eighth note and three in a measure. 

■jr-Four eighth notes, counting one to each eighth note and four in a measure. 

« -Six eighth notes, counting one to each eighth note and six in a measure. 

Compound Times are those which include or exceed .s/.y parts in a measure, and contain two, or more. 
principal accents, as °, X, \r . o < etc. 

X,?v, and £ , denote respectively six. nine, and twelve eighth notes in a measure, counting one to each dotted 
quarter note, thus: 



7 r ?!■ p 



^m 



a a a zm 



( ounl 1 




1 



^S3 



WTJZ 



pr pr ?r p 



aapaaaam 



Count l 2 8 12 8 4 12 8 4 1 vi :i 1 

Sometimes rests are introduced giving a number of measures rest, but the? are. however, better indicated 

by figures giving a number of measures, thus: 

1 S 28 ^ 



= I ^ I I ^ 



To show the end of a piece, tin' double bar is sometimes marked with a Pause (/?\) placed over it. thus: 



i 



J Fin i 



and sometimes with the word /•'////■ placed over, under 6r after it. thus: 

The Pause - o » wh.es placed over a aote or rest! prolongs it beyond its prop< r i alue. 

A slur over three aotes, with •« Hgure i indicates thai those three notes must be played io the time of two. 

I ^ mm mm ah I 

Sometimes the Hgure s is placed over the three ootes withoul the slur, thus: _^_ " : '* s "" ' s : ' 

This group of three notes is called a triplet. 



10 



SIGNS. 

A Sharp ($) placed before a note raises its pitch one half tone (semitone). 

A Flat (lO placed before a note lowers its pitch one half tone. 

A Double Sharp (x or x) raises the pitch two halftones. 

A Double Plat tW>) lowers the pitch two half tones. 

A Natural (tj) is used to restore a note to its natural pitch after being affected by a $ or k 

A double sharp is generally used to raise the pitch of a note already affected by the signature, and a double 
flat to lower it under the same conditions. To restore Such a note to its natural pitch in the key indicated by 
the signature, the natural is used in conjunction with a sharp or flat. 



Examples. 




-*&■ 



it 



& 



m 



j g- == j?f?- ^pp 



Staccato (J J J J) indicates that the notes are to played short and abruptly as if you were playing on sticks. 

Crescendo, cresc. or -==r the sound to be gradually increased. 

Diminuendo, dim, decrescendo, decresc. or r==— the sound to be gradually diminished. 

p - Piano or soft. J'- Forte or loud. 

pp - Pianissimo or very soft, ffi - Fortissimo or very loud. 

fp- The note to be commenced loud,then immediately soft. 

sfb or sf — Placed under or over a note signifies that such a note is to be struck forcibly and very loud. 

> — The note is to be accented but not necessarilyloud. 

A — The note is to be sustained to its full value. 

D. C or Da Capo (from the beginning), signifies that the piece must be played over from the beginning, 
(or, if a collection -of numbers,as a set of waltzes or quadrilles, from the beginnig of the number) either to 
the end, or to a finish indicated by a double bar marked Fine or with a rts . 
D. C at Fine. — Prom the beginning to the finish. 

D. S. or Dal Segno. — From the sign — 



to the end, or finish. 



D. S. al Fine. - Prom the sign to the finish. 



The sign -$- is usually used to indicate a skip to a Coda, at the will of the performer or leader. It some- 
times indicates a skip to a second Trio. It is also used to indicate a "Cut," that is, an omission of part of a com - 
position. In any of the above cases the part to which the skip is made, should have the same sign at its commencement. 

Sometimes the sign bears the accompanying words, "al Coda" meaning to the Coda. 

The Coda is a movement added to the end of a composition to make a more effective finish. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

To save space, common use is made of the following forms of abbreviation. 
/ or N - Sign of repetition of a whole measure, thus; 



Written. 



Plaved. 



S 



S 



z^ 



m 



3E 



S 



r jn i rjr] i ^ 



This sign is sometimes improperly used to indicate the repetition of part of a measure. The proper sign, 
however, is x or • . EXAMPLE. 



Written. 



Plavod. 




F » ^ * ■* ■ ^* W- 



5^ 



jjjjjj «' J l ^-E/£/£d- If 



*= 



11 



The sign 



Written. 



Played. 




across a single bar indicates a repetition of tiro measures, thus: 



F= • v*-m^n 



i^S 



'-- 



nrwr 



r r r 1 J u J 3 



i7«_ 




^ 



■dot 



^ ^ 



The sign v or / placed under a whole note or across the stem of a half or quarter not e ? thus:- o <? #, 
indicates that its value is to be played in eighth notes. Tliis sign ^ indicates that sixteenth notes are fo be 
played, and ^ thirty - second notes. 



Written. Played. 



EXAMPLES. 

Written. Played. 



<r 



33: 



* — » 



& " " "" 



Written. Played. 



Written. 



Played. 



* 



f=T=n r-r-r-n ? * • • * "■• : 



P=P 



r r r r 






Written. P! 



Written. 



Played. 



m 



C p » • 



Bis (twice) indicates that tlie passage marked is to be repeated, and is used for short repeating passages 
where the ordinary repeat marks might be overlooked. 



Bis. 



Written 



Played. 



r7\ 



* 



V 



.c 



: ^m 



t 'r\r'?> 



?3Edfc 



r> 

n y P y 1 ^ 



The musical Alphabet consist of seven letters. These seven letters, with the use of sharps and flats in- 
dicate twelve different musical sounds by the different combinations of which all musical effects are produced. 
When these seven letters, or primary sounds, are arranged in consecutive order they form a Scale. 

A SCALE. 

6 



■ jr 














n 


/L, 














CI 


\F\ 










n 






Kl/ 






r» 








II 




O 

D 


I. 


F 


G 


\ 


B 


c 



The eighth sound (or octave) bears the same name as the firsts and must be considered merely as an 

tit ion of that sound. In the Bame manner were we still further to ascend in the scale, the ninth would be a repe- 
tition Of the second, and SO on. 

This. perhaps, may be more clearly understood if we consider that, in ordinary Ian. any letter is the 

■ame in sound whether it be written large or small, (A, J following example is men 

tension of the scale, or a continued repetition of the firsl Beven sounds. 

9 



o 



■ 



<> o 



o « 



o 



9 



T> **• 



I 



o ° 



11 « 



• 1" II 



4 .'> 



«* 



o «* 



n «» 



1 2 S~ I - JT 



I 



:< \ 5 « 



12 



Any scale is a Diatonic Scale which contains the seven letters (beginning with any one of them), and the 
octave of the First, in regular order without repeating any one of them in any form, thus C,D,E,P,G,A,B,C. 
is a diatonic scale, while C, D, E, Eft, G, A,B, is not. Still the musical sounds would be the same in either case. 

The scale in our example is the Diatonic Scale of C Major. We will again give it and under it a Chromatic 
Scab: which gives all the intervening musical sounds. 

_/l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 



1 



1 



2 



TV 

3 



1 



-o- 



-o- 



3E 



-O- 



1E 



-©- 



TV 



::an 



-o- 



*v 



i 



EC 



-©- 



XT. 



10 



11 



12 13 



It will be perceived from the above Chromatic Scale that there are twelve different musical sounds in an 
octave. Five of these sounds must therefore be named from the letters representing the other seven sounds. 
It will be observed that between 3 and 4, also between 7 and 8, there are no intervening sounds. These inter- 
vals are therefore termed half-tones. The other intervals are termed whole-tones. 

From C to D is a whole tone 'or whole step), because there is a note half way between them, called C# (or 
it may be termed Dl>). 

From D to E is a whole tone, because D# occurs between them. 

From E to F is only a half tone, as there is no sound between them. From F to G, G to A, A to B, are whole 
tones, and from B to C a half tone. 

The Chromatic Scale is a scale si half tones. 

Now let us commence a scale on another letter, thus: G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G. 

Here are eight letters in regular order and it is an established natural fact that the half tones occur between 
E and F, and also between B and C. 

In the Diatonic Major Scale the semitones must occur between 3 and 4, and also between 7 and 8. 

SCALE OF G.dncorrect.) 

o 



-©- 



tv 



-©- 



3E 



-©- 



*^12 34 5 6 78 

The curved line (^ — ■) shows where the half tones occur in the natural tones, but they must occur between 
3 and 4, also 7 and 8. 

In the above scale they occur between 3 and 4, which is correct, but the other half tone is between 6 and 7, 
which is incorrect. We cannot change the letters, but we may change the sound of one of them by the use of a 
sharp (#). Thus the interval between 6 and 7 may be extended from a half to a whole tone, by placing a sharp 
before the F, as in the following example: 

SCALE OF G. (Corrected.) 



-©- 



TV 



-o- 



-©- 



3E 



•J 12 3 4 5 

By analysis this scale will be found correct in intervals. 
We give another commencing with F. 



TV 



-©- 



TV 



-©- 



-O- 



TV 



VI 2 3 4 5 67 8 

In this scale the half tones are found between 4 and 5, which is incorrect, and 7 and 8, which is correct. 
Tlif interval between 3 and 4 is here a whole tone. We can reduce it to a half tone by lowering the B a half 
tone, by the use of a flat (I?), thus: - 



-©- 



TV 



£ 



<V 



TV. 



-O- 



TV 



-O- 



13 



From this we draw the inference that the principal use of sharps and flats is to preserve the intervals of 
the Diatonic Scale, either Major or Minor. 

The First of a scale is called the Key Note. 

In the Minor Scale the intervals are as follows: 1 to 2, whole tone; 2 to 3, half tone-, 3 to 4. whole tone; 4 
to 6, 5 to 6, 6 to 7, whole tones; 7 to 8, half tone. 

This formation is called the Melodic Minor Scale. 

SCALE OF A MINOR. 



i 



-*v- 



3E 



-**- 



ZEE 



-1^-4 



t> 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

Sometimes this scale for Harmonic purposes is different in descending, thus: 

^ ^ 1-Jr tones. A tone. 



i 



o 



o 



o 



*> 



i> 



1 



2 



3 



5 



6 



s 



In the above we have half tones between 2 and 3, ;"> and 6, 7 and 8, while between and ? is a tone and a 
half. This is called a Harmonic Minor Scale. 

It would be confusing to place a sharp or flat before each note, therefore when a certain scale is desired, 
the sharps or flats are placed in a group at the beginning of a staff. 

This group of sharps or flats is called the Signature, as it is the sign by which the key or scale is known; 
if there is no signature, the composition is said to be in the natural key, or key of C. When sharps, flats or natur- 
als are used anywhere except in the signature they arc called accidentals, and are in contradiction to the signa- 
ture. An accidental usually only affects the note in the measure in which it occurs. If the last note of a meas - 
ure is affected by an accidental, the first of the next. ' it' the same note.) is also considered affected by it. bill to 
prevent misunderstanding should also have the accidental, and if a note which is affected by an accidental oc- 
curs^in the next measure, it should be restored by an accidental, although the effect of the accidental does do! ex- 
tend beyond the measure in which it is placed,' with the single exception given >. 

Each # or r> in the signature affects the note Ehrougoul the piece, unless contradicted by a change of signature, 

or by accidentals. 

INTERVALS. 

An interval is the difference in pitch between two notes. 

A degree is a visible distance referring to lines and Bpaces. Two notes occupying different degrees bul 



the same in pitch 



,thusi qfc 



o 



:>< 



constitute an enharmonic interval. 



Two notes upon the same degree even if differenl in pitch are called a prim . 

TABLE OF INTERVALS. 

Primes. nds. Third Fourths. Fit ' hs. • nths. 

Imperfect Imperfect 



Minor 



Minor 









■ . lave, 
perfect 



Ninths. 




The tenth can generally he termed I third, the twelvth a fifth, and the fifteenth an eighth 
of the abOVC intervals in harmony is generally n if the Upper Dote B| pearfl in 



14 



THE VIOLIN 




12 



1 _ 


Belly, or top. 


2 


Ribs, or Sides. 


3 _ 


_ Neck 


4 _ 


Fingerboard 


5 _ 


— Scroll, or Head 


H 


Peg-s 



7 _ 


_ Nut 


8 _ 


— Tailpiece 


9 _ 


_ Button 


10 _ 


f, or Sound Holes 


11 _ 


Bridge 


12 _ 


Peg- Box 



The Back is opposite the Belly or Top. 



The Bow 




A The Stick D The Screw 

B The Hair E The Point or Head. 

C The Frog-, Nut, Heel or Butt 

In the interior of the instrument are the Sound Post and Bass-Bar. 

As the production of tone is an important acquirement the student should have a fair instrument and positively a good- 
how. A weak bow v lacking in elasticity will seriously handicap the performer even if he has a very high grade Violin. 



66359-96-V 



< 

o 
o 



Q 

P3 

<J 
O 

pq vi 

o 

O w 

Ph ~ 

< 



^x*- 



3 



3 
it 



J£~ 



-**^ 



Jt- 






I- 



*i 



a 



Q 



xx 



a 



xx 



JJ-- 



^Sgrs «s^i 



ds; 



L! 



XX 






o 



a 



a 
o 
u 

- 






. 



v 



u 



^*- 



vv 



a 



w 



to, 






- 



o 
o 

XI 



- 



< 



"^ 

«* 

- 



z 



z 



XX 

- 



I i 



» _ 



• 



* - 



% - 



o 
pq 

X 

_r\ 
33 



"5« 

a 

w 
w 

-ft 
- 

a 



» p 



XX 






XX 

- 



u 



\x 



ft* 



.'. 



I 



\V- 



-x£|» -^. 



* - 







(A 


V) 


f 


09 






ha 


c 
u r 


j. 


< 


a 


(8 




u I 




a jj 














u: t/J 


*<■? 










Q / 






^i 












X, 


/ > 












Ef 




— 


N 















15 



tfttS9-»8 V 



[6 



HOW TO HOLD THE VIOLIN 

The instrument is held by the left hand and is supported upon the left collar-bone, the chin resting: upon the top and to the 
left of the tailpiece. The elbow should be under the body of the instrument but not touch the chest of the player. The body 
of the violin should slant downward from left to right and sustained at such a height by the left hand that the scroll, or head, 
is on a level with the part beneath the chin. The neck should rest upon the base of the forefinger and be sustained by a 
pressure of the first joint of the thumb, but do not let the neck of the instrument touch the hand between the forefinger and 
thumb. v 

The left hand should be rounded sufficiently for the fingers to fall easily upon all of the strings, the palm of the hand 
not touching the neck of the violin, and the wrist curving outwards towards the scroll. 



HOLDING THE BOW 

The bow is held in the right hand with the tip of thumb very close to the nut, or frog. The fingers hold the stick in such 
a manner that the hand is naturally rounded and the fingers slightly curved. The four finger-tips should lie closely to- 
gether with the tip of the little finger resting lightly upon the stick so that it may move easily back and forth as the bow is 
moved up and down. 

Good tone cannot be produced by poor bowing. The tone should begin clearly and distinctly at the first movement 
of the bow. The hairs of the bow must lie with their full breadth upon the string, about one inch above the bridge with 
the stick inclining slightly toward the fingerboard. It is more difficult to begin a tone promptly with the tip of the bow 
than with the heel for it is farther from the applying power. It is essential that the different tones alternating from dif- 
ferent parts of the bow be of equal power and resonance and the pupil should acquire the faculty of producing at will 
a tone of every shade of power. 



THE FINGERING 

The fingers must fall energetically upon the strings driving each string firmly to the finger-board. The little 
finger is far weaker than the others and should have special practice until a tone stopped by it, is as clear and firm as 
if stopped by the second finger. The fingers should be held over the strings in such position that they only fall vertically 
to strike the right place on any string. Do not lift the fingers at once after striking, if not necessary but keep them 
down as long as possible. 



TUNING 

^string 3^ string 2dstring lustring 
The strings are tuned in fifths fk n -= 

e)' ■— o — : A F " 

g „ 

The pitch is generally taken for the A string first and the D string is tuned a fifth below it. The G string is tuned 
next a fifth below the 3^ string and the £ is tuned last. 



66359-96- V 



17 



ELEMENTARY EXERCISES. 



The sign n indicates Down-bow and V Up-bow. Some writers use the signs thus; Li, Down-bow, A,Up-bow. In 
this book the signs first given will be used. 
The fingering is indicated as follows: 

- open string 

1 - I s -* finger 
i - 2 f i finger 
8 - 3d finger 
4 - 4th finger 



The Open Strings. 



o m 



I 



I 



3 n 



4 n 



o cc 



~o o — 

Repeat each section at least a dozen times and use full length of bow. 



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18 



Exercises on the E String. 



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Full length of bow for half notes and half length at middle of bow for quarter notes. 



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o lu r t~rf~ r jl ; / if r i_c r r r ir r r r if r i " -ii 


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Exercises on the Second String. 



19 



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20 



Exercises on the Third String. 



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Introducing F# as an accidental. 



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Practice N°_ s 5, 6 and 7 also by using- the open A string - . 



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Also practice N1 8 5 and 6 using 1 the open D string", 

Q 2 4 



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Exercise on the Third and Fourth Strings. 



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22 



INTERVALS OF WHOLE AND HALF TONES. 
USING THE SAME FINGER. 




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USE OF THE FOURTH FINGER. 



It will be noticed in the preceding" exercises that certain notes are produced on open string's and also by the use of 
the Fourth fing-er upon the next lower string - . As a rule it is best to keep upon the string- a's long- as it is convenient; 
that is, do not pass needlessly to the next string-. 

When playing- certain notes and other higher notes follow which necessitate the use of a hig-her string-, the open 
string- is frequently used, but g-enerally, when the open notes D, A and E are preceded and followed by any note be- 
low, it is better to use the fourth fing-er as follows 



I 



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The fourth fing-er is sometimes used in ascending- and descending- scale passag-es and also various other places where 
the open string- is not a part of the scale, or key> in which they are written. This is however sometimes obviated by a 
shift of the third fing-er. Sometimes the fourth fing-er is extended above the fifth above the open string-, but only a 



R 4 i 



half tone thus: 



thereby avoiding- a chang-e of position. 



The Slur. 



23 



The slur is accomplished by playing" two or more different notes by a single movement of the bow. 



THE SLUR ON THE SAME STRING. ■ 



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THE SLUR ON TWO STRINGS. 

n~ " V ~ n n 



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THE SLUR ON FOUR STRINGS. 



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Practice with all down bow, then all up bow, also with alternate up and down bowing". 



7, ^g= 



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66359-9B-V 



25 



Expression. 



Expression is a quality which appeals to our taste or feelings. Various marks and words are used yet much is still 
left to the judgement of the performer. Always bear in mind that expression mark> introduced in a musical compo- 
sition are placed there for practical purposes, not as an ornament to the page. Each letter, character or word has 
an important meaning and a student should be the owner of a reliable dictionary of mu6ical terms. Some of the 
most common are explained on Page 10, also on the last page of thi> work. 



Andanlino. 



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SCALE OF C MAJOR. 



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SCALE OF A MINOR. 



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Notice that the scale or key of A minor bears the same sig-nature as that of C major. 



EXERCISE IN C MAJOR AND A MINOR. 

This exercise modulates into A minor in the ninth measure and back to C major in the twelth. 
Lento. 



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28 



SCALE OF G MAJOR. 



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SCALE OF E MINOR. 



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Andantino EXERCISES IN G MAJOR AND E MINOR. 



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29 



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SCALE OF D MAJOR. 



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SCALE OF B MINOR 



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EXEECISES IN D MAJOR AND Bl> MINOR. 



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66359-98 V 



31 



Tempo wisely 



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SCALE OF F MAJOR. 



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F Mai or. 

n V 



EXERCISES IN F MAJOR AND D MINOR. 



3E 



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1. 



r ■' r r ir 






r'rrr'r 



D minor. 



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Play the strain through to the double bar taking the first ending', then repeal the Btrain, — K i i»i>i n ^r the Rrat and plaj 
log the >»Tond ending 



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Syncopation. 



Syncopation occurs when the accent falls upon the second instead of the first note of a passage. It is an unequal 
division of time or notes; an irreg-ular accent. In fact it is produced by giving- an accent where none is naturally ex- 
pected, by taking- away the accent from its natural point or by both methods combined. 

Syncopations, as a rule, should be strong- to be effective. 



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39 



The Positions 

When the left hand is so near the nut thai the first finger can easily, by pressing" each string, raise its pitch a tone or 
half tone, it is in the first position. This is the position used in all previous exercises. 

When the hand is moved a little towards the bridge so that the first finger may stop the string a major or minor third 
above the open string it is in the second position The third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh positions are respectively found 
at the distance of a fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and octave above the open string. 

There is also a half position in which the first finger is placed half tone, and the second finger a whole tone above the 
open string. This position is almost indispensable for the execution of some passages. 

The movement of the hand from one position to another is called a shift. Do not move unnecessarily from one position to 
another but when you have reached a higher position than the first, stay in it unless compelled to change To accomplish this 
result keep the first finger as much as possible on the string. 

Players with small hands and short fingers experience difficulty in reaching the upper tones of the high positions, par- 
ticularly those of the sixth and seventh. In such a case draw back the thumb of the left hand around the neck more and more 
in each higher position until the tip of the thumb just touches the neck. This will he found convenient from the fourth posi- 
tion up. Hold the violin fasl by the chin when changing from high to lower positions that it may qo1 fall from the hand. 

The scales should be practised in all positions to nquire accurate intonation. In these the player will observe that as the 
positions become higher, the tones are closer together The half tones are always closer and it often happens in the verj 
highest positions, that one finger must leave the string in order that the next may take its place. 

If in a passage a single tone occurs belonging to the next position above or below, the position should not be changed 
for the Bake of this one note, the player may reach for it if higher by extending the little finger, .is in case ol the uppei < 
given iii previous exercises [f the note required is lower draw back the first finger still holding the hand in each case 
named in tin- original position ( onvenience must be the only guide in this matter. To produce special effects the trained 
.uti-t often chooses to play in a higher position when the notes might perhaps be more easily played in the us.ii.il position 

The tone color varies on the different strings, the lower notes of the A string do not sound like the upper tones ol the I) 
string and still less like those of the (i string It ih e\ ■ iiii-ni therefore thai the c haiacter of tone as well as convenience should 
be considered at timi - 



Exercises In The Second Post ion 



§ 



Shift from the \\ { t.. li'J position alter the first note 



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•«»&»-»«. v 



42 



First and Third Positions. 



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With broad strokes. 



l-"685!»-<)«-V 



43 



Scale of C in Five Positions. 



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6fi359-9l>-V 



45 



DIFFERENT FORMS OF BOWING 

In the previous exercises but two forms of bowing" have been introduced; the ordinary stroke and the slur. There are 
other forms, some of which are useful to the general performer and some of special features more particularly adapted 
for solo work. 



THE SPICCATO OR SPRINGING BOW 

In French this is also termed the Sautille. This indicates a bounding- stroke near the middle of the bow and is made 
by the movement of the hand alone. Keep the wrist loose and impart a strong vibration to the stictThe bow must nev- 
er entirely leave the string. This form of bowing is capable of great rapidity and lightness. 



Preliminary Exercises 



^ ii" ST7}jm^^\m}^nji^J7J]jjm ^ 






gsffff 




THE SALTATO 

This stroke is similar to the spiccnto but more moderate in speed. It may be made by the arm and hand or by 
the hand alone. 



THE MARTELE 

This stroke is generally made with the point of the bow which bounds from the strings at earh stroke. It Is, at it- 
name indicates, a sharp and decisive hammered stroke. 

Practice the shore roar exercisee with the martele* bowing, playing rather slowly until familiarity withtb rthe 

stroke has been attained. It should never become of common use, ;t- real mission b.-irie; an embellishment for the soloist 



*fca:i»-»e-v 



46 



There is another form of springing' bow in which the bow leaves the string after each stroke. The bow is lifted from 
the string- after a long- swift stroke and is not necessarily a sharp staccato. In the example it is marked Grand de- 
tache. 

Example 

Grand detache 



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VI 




THE STACCATO 

This must not be confused with the ordinary firm staccato as played with up and down bowing - . It is played with 
the bow moving in the same direction and should be practiced slowly at first with an up bow near the point, then with the 
down bow near the butt. It is useful even in orchestra practice for it can produce a rapid and brilliant staccato effect. 
It is indicated by dots under a slur. The same form of notation is also used for a semi-legato effect in a moderate degree 
of movement. This may confuse the player at times until he is able to always recognize the staccato. 



Allegretto 
stacc. 



Example 




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66359-96-V 



47 



Emphasize the last note in the first and similar measures. 






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— £ — : — ' m » m ~- 5 I, «= -» 



cnM hi NATION OF THE SL1 R AND STACCATO 
Allegro « 

** 2 ==== === === ==3=a >'?*?**** * - === 

it % J d ■ < r fjt mrm | J ■ f f *_~ . . I T I ' * * *-* 



* m I ^J= 



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i\ ^^^'——^A^^.-C1^ 



•«lftt-»« V 



48 



The Tremolo. 



This bowing is played at about the middle or upper half of the bow, the notes being" repeated with great rapidity 
so as to produce a quivering - effect. The arm must be steady, the wrist free and the strokes short. 

It is indicated nearly always in an abbreviated form thus : 
For abbreviations see page 11. 



Andante moderato. 



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Allegro moderato. 

Tremolo on 8 l b notes 



ftiflT?u?-jT i jTn i Jrjr i fJf i^ g 



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Allegro moderato. 

Tremolo on 16*!? notes 






* M I P y * 




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r r j* r ^ ^f 




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A tremolo may also be produced by playing" two notes with each up and down bow, keeping the bow in a springing - con 
dition. The upper half of the bow is used and it should at first be practised on an open string. 

Example ^TrJjJJ SB [ JjJJ JB Ie 



etc. 



This tremolo is very swift and also very difficult. It is used principally by soloists. 

66859-flfi-V 



Studies Combining The Different Bowings. 



49 



Sig-ns. WB. whole bow, Pt. point. 



Allegro moderato. 


. fr" pp-J i llj pjjj r i r i if n i r i r r p f r r p f p r ' 



Practice first with ordinary bowing". After the plain bowing" has become easy the varied forms may be ap- 
plied with great practical benefit. 



^[fr clff cfirwdfr [ctt J ^ up 



ro^j?s 



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. Springing bow, mVWI* of bow 



. 4 n — := 



Other Forme ol Bowing l-"i N9 l. 




. With bro.nl Itrokei 



Kutt 



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u 



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Finish for Key of C/^ 



J'« C S J J W J I J J 



tti^'hj 



r r~ri 



Models. 

j spiccato 



2 martele 




piS-m 



MODELS IN DIFFERENT KEYS FOR N2 2. 

etc. Beg-in and end on first note at A and play in the Key of Eh 



A*fj7Tijm 



etc. 




n 11 it ii ii 



ii ii ii ii ii 



ii ii B ii ii ii ii ii ii G. 



ii ii C 



>> ii ii ii Bt>. 



etc. » » » ii ii ii ii D ii ii ii ii ii ii D. 



n ii ii ii ii 



ii ii E » ii ii ii ii ii F. 



Practice the different bowing-s in the different keys. 

A, i i i i i B 



£ 



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D 



E 



'""'Citing 



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Other bowing-s. 

1 2 



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= J J J J J H | J - i J J J I | JJJi^i-hW 



Other keys 



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bs 



B 



SBrf 



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6H359-96-V 



51 



Allegro. 



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Other bowing-s. 

U 1 n -V - 2n V 



3 martele $ spiccato 




5-H 



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J J | J J JJJJ ujjjjiUjjjj^ ' jjJ J^^ 



^^ 



< " « » 



i)t her bowings. 




\/>t' 1 ato 



6. ft,jjT]jj i j i j ^JT] j i ^; r ^:i rrrrr_^ 



■"—— Ml w .m » ______ 



Other bn« ion 

l 







For farther Mady in this line nee Krestier's h ■•:•■ Violin 






oi: 



EMBELLISHMENTS. 



These include the Grace Notes in general, Turn (Gruppetto), Mordente, and Trill. 

The Small Appoggiatura or Petite Grace Note, is a small note with a dash through its stem, thus: ir It takes 
its time from the principal note - to which it is usually attached by a slur - and is played very quickly. 

EXAMPLES. 

Written Played 



Written 



Played 



VTj tJDlfi.fi. fi-fi-t j^^lQ-'XQ fh 



There are two forms of Double Appoggiatura; one consisting of two grace notes, (ascending or descending,) 
taken at the distance of a third from the principal note, and the other of two grace notes, one above and one below 
the principal note. 



Ascending-. 



Descending". 



one above and one below 



EXAMPLES. 



ft 



t 



^ 



^ 



E 



zL 



±, 



dtlt 



The Double Appoggiatura should take its value from the preceding note, thus; 
Written Played 



W 



ft 



EXAMPLES'; 



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3£ 



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rJ II 



The Appoggiatura Simple is seldom used, for it is better and decidedly less confusing to write the passage out 
in full. A short illustration will fully explain it. It takes one half of the value from the note which it accompanies. 



Written 



Examples. 



E 



J 



Played 



§ 



X 



4- 



i^^ 



m m 



=o: 



The Gruppetto is a small group of grace notes including the Turn. We will first explain the Gruppetto of three- 
notes. They are usually written in sixteenth notes unless attached to an eighth note, in which case the Gruppetto 
should consist of thirty-second notes. They do not take their time from, the note to which they are attached. 



WXNSA > I 



7 

The Turn or Gruppetto of four notes comes after its principal note and takes its time from it; usually one half 
its value. Many forms are better written out in full, owing\othe difficulty of proper interpretation. The follow- 
ing is the most simple form of Turn. 

Written ^"^^\ Pla >'^ _ 

* 



i<> r n i 



£ 



The sign used to indicate this species of Turn is «v thus: 



ess 
It 



* 



The Turn consists of one note above, one below and two repetitions of the principal note. The lower is the next 
note, but is sometimes raised a half tone by a % or \ placed under the sign as above. 

If the upper note is changed the turn is written out in full. 

There are so many ways of rendering the Turn that a thorough explanation cannot be given owing to lack 
of space. 

As a rule the Turn partakes of the character of the composition. 

There are many irregular groups of grace notes, which appear in difficult forms of composition like the 
following:- 



Moderato. 




^ j«t» F - — 

f.f <l^f I *> -*■ 



% 



These all take their time from the previous note and are always to be performed in a brilliant style. 

The Trill proper, consists of a shake -upon the principal note and the next above in the scale, concluding with a turn. 

Example. 

In this case the lower note of the turn is usually a half tone below the principal note. ,/_ ft 
The Trill is indicated by *tr and the lower half of the turn is usually written out. : ' ' 

A trill for several bars is indicated thus, *•- 




53 



A Long Trill on a note affected by a pause, should usually commence slowly and very gradually grow more 
rapid, while the Turn. should be rather slowjy and deliberately executed. Sometimes when the note following 
the Trill is lower, the Turn is omitted. 

The Mordente is a Trill without the Turn. It is indicated by the sign -w 





The same in slower tempo would be played thus 

M 

There is another form of Mordente common in Clarinet and Flute parts, but ineffective when performed by a 

brass instrument. 

It is indicated by the Mordente sign, sometimes by <tr sometimes by grace notes ami sometimes written out 
as performed, thus: 



^ 



' 



or 



lulu 



/r 



* 



IT 



^ 



fc^Eg 



' 



Played 



jrJjTr- ^ ' 



The Mordente takes its time from the note to which it belongs 

The GruppettO is ordinarily placed between two notes of unequal value and serves to give grape and ele 
gance to certain phrases. 

EXAMPLES. 
Moderate Slow movement 



3 




jjy^r & j , =a 



yi« i Tf i «ff.' ; ^ '. .-— .• ; 



Allegro vivace 



; = ., S: 



m 



3^ 



p£ 






SCALE IN GRTPPETTI. 



t ■ i •" 



• m • 






f 



• --• 



• • :• m • m • 



= _' ' •:••■• " «J«V *«w 5 fc •♦-. 



As may he understood from tl imple, 'lii^ form of gnij | insiderably with the tei 

and its rendering depends largely upon the experience, ndjndgmenl of the perform) 



54 



The Gruppetto or Turn. 



fe 



Moderate 

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The last measure illustrates the Turn or Gruppetto of four notes. 



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The Short Appoggiatura or Petite Grace Note. 




Allegro. 



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22: 



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6«359-96-V 



55 



Allegretto. 



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Andantf. 



The Double Appoggiatura. 



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Ml" ' \ 1\ 



MlSt-»« V 



56 



Eight Recreative Duets. 



Andantino 




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66359- 96 -V 



57 



Andante con moto. 



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Tempo di Valse. 



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«6»59-96-V 



59 



Allegro moderato. 



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•6869-96 -V 



60 



Double Stops, 



Adagio. 





Intervals 




\ the 6«h 


anc 


7 th 
























































































1 /v r * 




















































• 


L. BO 


\; 




















































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For abbreviations see pages 10 and 11 



1 



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23 



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77 77 

34s 



XT 



'"27 |?77 



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34? and 24? 



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Unisons (The same note on two string's simultaneausly 



<> a 



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4 

Octaves in 1 S J Position 



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66359-9H-V 



61 



Sustaining- one note while playing others. 

n v - 



mm 



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Notice that in the 5'2 1 ,6 t 2 1 ,7 , _h and 8'! 1 measures that E and A are stopped with the same finger. 



S 



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CHORDS OF THREE NOTES 

rl i e - ■ e rl ■ « .h , J h 



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62 



The Major Scales. 



L Tempo J =ios to J.i!4 



mm 



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^gJLL .-,j:j^--_ = _ULJ L_14- : f J JJ ^-^-j^:-M| 

■a - 



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Ffe 



s§e 



ft* 



fP 



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? 



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63 



The Minor Scales. 



\ J; 108 to d:U 



r^r ^ r i'T^r ti r = Fr 



^ 



35 



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rwjj^yj 



g p 



rf^ffrff 



H^tiiiatf 



©■ 



fe 



a 



? 



i 



r ?v*r i f Pn ifffrir¥' 



rrr J i JjjJ i rHH 



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# 



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ct 



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«ite* 



i 



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B 



in 



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r l r J JJUJrHi M ri 



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••«&»-»• -V 



64 



Scale Exercises. 



With two different bowings. 




m 




IffltfJTCfl" 






wi—^zm 



m * 0l i * TT f 



m 



- \ 



^ 



m 



se 



si 




sn 





m z 9 0. 



t w 



m ' ■ 







J, 



«0 to 140 



3.3PE 



i 



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J J J J 1 J J if J J ' > JhJ J ^j) J ^ 



jW> ^Jj' 




HBP 




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# ^ # 



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/TS 



* y " * 




tftii£h j$h\ $@ 0& 



66859-96 -V 



65 



^'^ JUiiJ J"J J i cxu^ rr ' rxjlr rjLu i-^"J J JTJ^ ' 




££g^ 



^ 



TT, 



S 



^ 



i g f r i ^ 



u^jj iJITi 



n iprrrrr f 



±t 



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d • d 



4 * 



m a * 



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Si 



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~ 



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a F m 



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^ 



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-i; 



*~V 





6. 6 s " I 




S 



33 



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*^r»^ 



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torn. 



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*~* + • W; 




ET\b > || 



mm 



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p 



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^ ii^jijTT^ tffi££riJ]J] h Jji,Jj > Jj,Jjij-w i i 



W«» »« V 



66 



8.&S 



te 



te 



Allegretto. 



gg£S 



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fee 



fe jtjj j j i j j jj 1 1 j jjj j j i ^ J Tnr] ipg 



w 



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g=i ^, 




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66858- 96-V 



67 



J; 120 to JrlOf 



lO. W^=f 



, ""~ = 111 - a p#P C T if tip * a J 1 l ~l i f „_ ^, i 




# 



s 



£ 



*m 



KTTirn 



mm 



d * ' * \~d 



fp3 



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f, ffnrr'rrirr'r^ 



jJJJi^ii 




s 



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^rWimc'r 



tat 



^■"Viii 




jQxicJ i r'rrrrj^r i i^ PT j i jJ i J^ ^ 



E ffi? 



^^ 



^s 



-s 



rtLr^ i f^jjJjggg 



{ ij ^ rTTJ ^ f ^^^ 



wTn 



nr. 



4 jfffV i 1 1 i rr b f7^> i r ffTOT^Jj ^p 



I ijTT Tr rii nTJ f rrr i rT^^r-J ji jT ni^d 



Daaclafa rin Duh Stodiefl IB— Bded fa in connection with the*.- ■ 

NHI-N-V 



68 



Tempo J = i2o u> J ; 



no 



11.3SE 



§P 




m 



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~ - ^«* ' J* 



gg_«ag i j^ 



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CC£rLLCr»CCg 



■^ . * y 



cxj: r Ccrj- icxr r 



rgrffcr 



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Other models 

Begin and end on 1*1* note at 1 and play in Key of D, at 2 and play in Key of E[», at 3 and play in Key of F, at 4 
and play in Key of G,at 5 and play in Key of A\> or Alj, at 6 and play in Key of B\>. Also practice in slurs of four notes. 



Scales by Thirds. 



C MAJOR 




m 



rrf r^f i ffl^r ^ 



fe^ir 



3E 



J JJ^W' r 



Bt MAJOR. 




For further scale practice see Schradieck Scales. 

66859-96 -V 



69 



Chromatic Scales. 



Move the fingers decisively and in the ascending- hcnle leave them as much a6 possible on the strings. 

A* a rule use the first three fingers twice each, the fourth only once. 

The da>h - indicates that the next note is to be taken with the same finger. 



1.3PE 



— - -L-Uiitti J ' J i t J *?** 



wm 



*i* 



ji7T3 ^Ti^r i r r^r r ft C fT f i 



4 1 g. 



4 1 * 8 4 



Wu 



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p-vp- 



_^^jJ J iJ zj=fcjJ 



* — 1 — 



8 a 1 4 8 — a — 



1 



8 — Tl Z 



m m m 

1 4 a 



Practise first without and then with the 4U 1 finger. 




-jjM^Mt 



"jJJ j J J irr'rpi' 



jjJUJJ 



PP? 



SI 



gi'^^ ' ^ri' ^f^i 



Pt?r 



T- 



2 1 



4 ° 4 



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'i^ ' ^i-'^V^ 




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I 4 8- 2 _ 



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""W jj J Nfl «*t 



1 JpTO r Hfrr V??^ 



n 



8- 2 8 1 

4 



1 — 
2 — 8 4 




1 8— B 



In triplets J.-sotoJ 



ii-ii 



3 $ " jjw AjjjjjF icHH^UJjij i j j jjjW^ ir * i 



iT^ iirffr i r 1 rr ^^ JJoXuT j Jfl [^ »r rf ir < ■ 



:- 



■ffi- ^^^ 



'i 



Trri r i rrr * fe 



r ^JiJu jflrr'rci'riN-f 



u*&»-««-v 



70 






4- |EUg3>jp ttf ^ffi^^ * ' E^ ^ 



Htrf*f 



£ 



'VTj^ 



j T ^^r i i wr'ifto^ i J'^^ i J^ig a 



IN VARIOUS POSITIONS. 




E^S 



n_ 3 — 4 i — 



. , ft rr^ ffWffl ft 




3 4 



1 2—3 4 1 2 3 43 2 1 4 3 2 1 







» :!' n j w a^ ff^i 



JEE£ 



, ,.__ 8- 2 .-^~J 8 *— « 



a — l 




n,Tj.BgJ i cttjrrifr l r Bg 



,< ,Htrf , f¥fffff 



P* 



ttrfW 



EfegB 



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3^1—4 1 



2 3—4 1 2 g 4 1 2 



121 2 12 1212 2 3 4 



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4 3 — 2 — 212 121 21212121 




3—2—1 — 3— 2 — 1 — 3 



66359-96-V 



Key of C. 

TONIC CHORD. 



Major and Minor Chords. 

(BROKEN chords or arpeggios.) 



Dominant 7t n 



71 




I J- MINOR 






imIht bowinro _ 



,mr m 



m ; m 



.'"'. 



ii> •' ^ '- .*• - # ^ 



»* % 



. - - -^ -• 



72 




7 



G\> MAJOR 



Eb MINOR. 



For other bowings see bottom of previous page 



3SS 



JWr.,rt\ 



gsus 




rfa 



a/so <*»« 

JE — _&^ 



J '^-fflT 



S f ^ffl 



^^ 



• — =♦ 



#^ — # 



-©- 



B MAJOR. 



fete ffl 




8.< 



G# MINOR 



3s 



*3*H 



E MAJOR 



aZso tf^ 



9. 



10. 



TOn&^j 




FH minor. 



*fc 



^-rrrffr-^^I L^ 



£ tf H fri 



• * 



Sf 




D MAJOR 



MAJOR. pi— U| 



upsf 




11 



B MINOR. 



'» &*%$ 



G MAJOR. 



12 




66359- 96-V 



Diminished Sevenths. 

Resolved in Minor Key in passing by Dominant?*! 1 



73 



Diminished 7'h 



Resolved 

in 
A MINOR 



in 
D MINOR 



in 
G MINOR 



in 
C MINOR 



in 
F MINOR 



Dom 7^ Minor Key 




JLh^t* S f^T mf^mf*-?** 1 


Hi r 


^^j'rfrr. S'Tir-f^fffi ^=8 


$ ,r 'V J ^ B ^=£i-^"-^ 




i ^r^/^r r'y^i3J J x J j J r i 



. a» ^K uijpjjfljp *$ MCccrCfr ^ | I | J ^ e ^ S 



£ 




in 64 MINOR 



5 ^ 
ft K 5 

* 6 5- 



#HEg 



AMINOS 




UJ ^ I ^^^J^ I J^ flffg g 







in 

H MINOR 




F,i »FrF» P. -T-^ I "* 5= ^: — -••'^^" II 






74 



Triplets. 



i 



^ *- 



x -y :j 



•¥WB 



0^.0 f 9 * — # 3"» f00 



§ 



J0 



tj jm fc 



3 



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c£jTTrgrr fi gg 



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^ 



w 



/7s 



^ ! J^J J7J m j Ij^jj i jjj m U - II 



9 9 * 9 +\ 9 



Other bowings 
1 



Hujj^uf l 



-* — *- 



^ *- 



iii«L«U 



2E 



^ #- 



T 



mm 



£ 



0- -m- 0- 



m , T 



fcHrfftfw 



■+*+■ 



-mtfrmffi 



¥ 



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1^1 



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Models for other keys 
and bowing. 



or pl| 



p -UJ J T 3 



feg=g 



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5 £1 



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66859.96-V 



75 



s. ^s^^\hi? J ^^p^i \ i s^srw^ 



$W zm a W frj" irTr gi b B i B £r ^ cgi 




j ^jg^ i ^m^^ i cdrjgjajjiigu *T 



4. (j^S JJJig 



as; 



5=ffi 



if r i ^^f frcc y 



n^ 




l^^ f tfrwr 1 ^ r fr f [fj^ i r.jrr ^ ^^p4^l 



N9 3 



N'J 4 



Other bowings f"r N1? 3 and 4 




^.jji,ij j jjiMj ij T irnrT l mi a j Uja rii J i 



I- 



* . 



r f r_r r r r f f r_ r ir r r r ^i*^ ♦ 



f ^- 



Irfrrrrr rrrcrrj^ rrfr^^r i ^ rrr ^g 



j-p/Timn^ ^ 



^s 



.. 



e 



■^ 



«=» 



Other bowing- 

1 




& -T: jg -r. 




76 



The Pizzicato. 



Hold the violin in the usual position and pick the string- with the first finger of the right hand. If the pizz- 
iccato is rapid the first and second fingers may be used. Pick the string near the lower end of the fingerboard 
and avoid touching the string with the fingernail. If a long movement is to be played pizzicato it is preferable 
to hold the violin under the right arm and pick with the thumb. Sometimes the pizzicato is played with the left 
hand, but only in special cases, chiefly in solo work. When picking with the right hand rest the thumb against 
the edge of the fingerboard. 



Definitions: — 



Pizz:— Play pizzicato. 

Arco:— Resume playing with the bow. 



pizz. 



1.& 




3 



3 



3 



S 



y— zm. 



m - m 



Allegro moderato 



2. 



,1 pizz 



m 



s 



PP 



fe££ 



§^ 



m m 



Practice picking with the first finger, then with the thumb 



^ 



U v • l JuJit 




n\ 



l£j I P 7 j' y i l 



3 



Begin with the bow. 
Moderato 



Combination of the pizzicato and the bow. 
P^ Z - arco ^ P izz - 



arco 



w U ii Q ; 

3.-<ErH-p 



zra3i[szp: 



i 




rJHtflP'MElUCU p 



W 



pizz. 



arco 




■1 pizz. arco ,r 2. pizz. 



MUXlh 



arco 



JiSDCIM 



SE 



^ 



/ 



pizz 




IB 



£ 



arco 



^5=* 



pizz. pizz. 
■ arcoi 



arco 



u ^ricJ EJ 



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Moderato 
pizz. 




13 



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66359-96-V 



77 



Natural Harmonics, 



Natural Harmonics are produced by touching - the string- without pressing the string to the fingerboard. Starting from 
the middle of the string some are to be found between that point and the bridge and others towards the nut In these 
examples the sign ♦ designates the position of the finger, or note played, while the note on the upper staff indicates 
the actual sound produced. 

The D string 



Note 
produced 



Note 
played 



On the G string 

-JL 



^^ 



#f* 



From the middle to 
the bridge. 



* 



4=1 



4 * 



i^ 



From the middle t< 
the nut. 



nrt 



£e 



s 



t*f . #5 



To the bridge. 



fe=£ 



-* — *- 



-i s- 



£ 



To the nut. 



f=F^ 



& ik 



The A string 

"- c. 



rf ff»f f ,rff 



*te 



The E string 
it 



. te £ -te . te 



k 



i 



£ 



To the bridge. 



To the nut. 



8, 



fe 



fe* 



te 



feU 



f¥ f r' 



*— of 



-H * 



Artificial Harmonics. 

Artificial Harmonics are produced by pressing down one finger firmly and another lightly on the same string. If 
the 1*-* finger is pressed down and the 4t_h finger placed lightly a perfect fourth higher, the sound of the note taken with 
the first finger is produced a double octave higher. The usual note indicates the one pressed down, the sign ♦, the 
lightly placed finger, and the small note above, the actual sound produced. 

The 1*b finger may also be placed lightly a perfect fifth higher, then the sound produced is the fifth above the octave 
ot the note taken with the 1*1* finger. 



The 1*b finger placed a fourth higher:- 

te te V "H 



Note 
produced 



Note 
played 




£ 



(i string. 



¥ 



r r t T 



H H kl H 



nyrrr-^ 



i 



\>m \\ 



\>£ t 



fc 



£= 



D strmj ;. 



i d bl 



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4 n 



fr 






te te jt % 



f E H z 



te te t t h £ *£ £ 



* te te 



A -tring 




:& 



I "iing 



1 



f *f ifr 



?• 



«6ar>»-y«-v 



78 



Note 
produced 



Note 
played 



The fourth finger placed a fifth higher 



\fw — ir 



G string 



r X X r i T t f f 



\i k 



D string 



i 



si 



a==:t2 



p 



i ' I p i ? 

4 n 



p ' It 



1* 



4 



r^ \\ 



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*■ ' f* ff 



A string 



g ,Bft 



E string 



f> ..flfr 



9 f t 



fc£ 



te Jte Cjte 



* 



*-S^-» 



5 *& 



> — TE 



*— fl-» 



Examples of the Major Chord. 

IN NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL HARMONICS. 



The different strings are indicated by L_II III IV. 



fH 



#f = 



^ 

** 






I 



■- > 



m 



r^w 



1 



2 13 1 

IV III- 



1 3 



12-4 

m — iv_i_! 



3 4 
1 1 



iv in n. 



g g 



£ * 



fet 



segue 



wzw. 



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9—9- 



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l_ 

II. 



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iv_ 



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JI 



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4_ 
1_ 



4_ 
1_ 

rv_ 






4: 3 4 

1 1 1 

rv hi 



* — — 



i :: = 



8 ; 




te 




K. 



i 



p — *• 



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B 



ssrtfff 



4 3 4- 



1 

ni rv u 



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IV III II I 



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1 

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For further enlightenment on the various harmonics David's Violin School Part II is recommended. 

66359-96-V 



The Trill or Shake. 



79 



The trill or shake is the rapid alternation of two successive notes comprehending an interval not greater than a whole 
tone. Its duration is always equal to that of the note which bears it. It is denoted by the sign of abbreviation tr. 

The trill being frequently employed, it is essential that it be brilliant, supple, brisk and light.qualities without which 
it would only disfigure the melody. 

To trill properly allow the fingers to fall without stiffness: Practice at first slowly,then by degrees with increasing 
rapidity, swelling and diminishing the sound, until the fingers have acquired all the desired flexibility and lightness. 

The trill usually commences with the note which bears it. Occasionally composers begin with the note above or 
the note below; in such cases they indicate it by a grace note. 

When several trills succeed each other in descending, we suppress the grace notes at the end except those of the 
last trill, because the commencement of the second trill acts as a finish to the first etc. 

There are several ways of preparing and finishing the cadence: The following are sonic most in use, their proper 
employment being purely a matter of taste. 

Andante affettuo.so 
tr 



-fy. 

£ I , j » $ \ V y $ Y ■ y | J.'^Pp y K y } ] 




¥ 



W^p 







fr 



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tz^t 



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Preparatory Exercises on the Trill. 







80 




tr 

IE 



5 



fr 



ipse 



i*UJi«L ; 



£ 



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m 



1^1 3 
3 3 



2 3 
3 



2 3 
3 



Allegretto. 
ir_ 






2 jg; ; j3 



THE GRUPPETTO AND TRILL COMBINED. 
# — ^ ^ 



I U J . 13 



^ 



Jfc 



PF* 



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T^iV 



23 



i 



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g| n i p, in, ,a i 



tr 



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gggg =; 



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fg= — ft 



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vtr 



rail. 



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2 S 
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rail. as 



B6359-96-V 



81 



Five Recreations for Two Violins. 



Andantino. 



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96 



ORCHESTRA STUDIES. 



These studies consist entirely of fragments from standard overtures. They are the difficult or most important 
movements from the regular first violin parts and in nearly all cases are not connected with each other. 
The sig-n | | signifies that the movement before is not connected with that following it. 

Overture S emir amid e . 



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^-M: 



THE BOHEMIAN GIRL 

OVERTURE 



99 



M.BALFE 



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100 



MORNING NOON AND NIGHT IN VIENNA 

OVERTURE 
Allegro appassionato. 



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FINALE FROM 

WANDERER'S ZIEL 

OVERTURE 



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103 



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Raymond Overture. 



A.THOMAS. 



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106 



FINALE FROM 

WILLIAM TELL 

OVERTURE 



Allegro. 



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112 



COMMON MUSICAL TERMS 



Accelerando, Accel.- Gradually increasing- the velocity. 

Adagio- A very slow degree of movement. 

Ad Libitum, Ad Lib.- At the discretion of the performer. 

Affettuoso-With mournful expression. 

Agitato- Ag-itated, hurried, restless. 

Allegretto -Light and cheerful but not so quick as Allegro. 

Allegro - Quick, lively, but frequently modified by the addition 

of other words that change its expression, as; 
Allegro Agitato - Quick, with anxiety and agitation. 
Allegro Assai- Very quick. 

Allegro Con Fuoco - Quick, with fire and animation. 
Allegro Con JVIoto - Quick, with more than the usual degree of 

movement. 
Andante- A movement in moderate time but flowing - steadily, 

easily, and gracefully, This term is often modified as to time 

and style by the addition of other words, as,- 
Andante Con Moto- Moving- easily, with motion or agitation,- 

rather lively. 
Andante Maestoso- Rather slowly and in majestic style. 
Andante ma non Troppo- Slowly but not too much so. 
Andantino - A little faster than Andante. This is a disputed 

term and in some old compositions it is used to indicate a 

movement slower than Andante. 
Anima or Animato - With life and animation. 
Assai- Very, extremely, in a high degree, as Allegro assai,very 

quick. 
A Tempo - In time; a term used to denote that after some divia - 

tion or relaxation of the time, the performers must return to 

the original movement. 
Ben- Well; such as Ben Marcato, Well marked. 
Bravura, con- With spirit and boldness of execution. 
Brillante - Brilliant. 
Cantabile-In a melodious, singing- and graceful style, full of 

expression. 
Col or Colla- With the,- as CollaVoce, with the voice. 
Con -With; as €on Forza, with great force. 
Con Amore- With tenderness and affection. 
Con Anima or Con Animato -With Animation. 
Con Brio - With life, spirit, brilliancy. 
Con Fuoco - With fire and expression. 
Gon Spirito -With spirit, life,energ-y. 
Delicato - Delicately, smoothly. 
Dolce - Sweetly, softly, delicately. 
Elegante- Eleg-ant, graceful. 



Espress, Espressivo or Espressione-With expression. 

Facile- Lig-ht, easy. 

Giocose- Humorously, sportively. 

Gracioso- Graceful. 

Grandioso- Grand, noble. 

Grave - Slow, solemn. 

Larghetto-Slow but not so slow as Larg-o. 

Largo-A slow and solemn degree of movement. 

Largo Assai -Very slow. 

Legato- In a close, smooth, graceful manner. 

Leggiero- Ligrht, swift, delicate. 

Lento -Slow. 

Ma- But, as Andante ma non troppo, slow but not too much so. 

Maestoso -Majestic, stately, dig-nified. 

Marcato - Marked, accented, well pronounced. 

Meno -Less; as Meno Mosso, less movement. 

Meno Vivo - Not so fast. 

Mezzo- In a middling- degree or manner; as Mezzo Forte, 

rather loud. 
Moderato-With a moderate degree of quickness. 
Molto- Much, very much, a great deal. 
Moito Allegro -Very quick. 

Morendo - Gradually diminishing- the tone and time. 
Mosso -Movement, motion. 

Moto -Motion, movement; as Con Moto, with motion rather quick. 
Non -Not, no; as Non troppo, not too much. 
Non tanto-Not so much,or not too much. 
Piu - More; as Piu lento> Mof e slowly. 
Piu mosso- More motion. 
Poco- Little. 

Poco Piu Allegro- A little more Allegro. 
Prestissimo - As fast as possible. 
Presto- Quickly, rapidly. 

Rallentando, Rail.- The time gradually slower. 
Rit, Ritard, Ritardando - Same as Rallentando. 
Scherzando - Playful, sportive,lively, merry. 
Sempre- Always; as.Sempre Accelerando, always faster. 
Smorzando- Gradually dying- away. 
Sostenuto - Sustaining the tone. 
Stringendo- Accelerating- the movement. 
Tempo Primo - In the original time. 
Tutti r All the entire b and or chorus ; in a solo it indicates where 

the full band or orchestra is to come in. 
Vivace - With animation. 



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v - T&